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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Space Shuttle Enterprise
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Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Rockwell International Corporation

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle orbiter. It was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform test flights in the atmosphere. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight.

Originally, Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight, which would have made it the second space shuttle to fly after Columbia. However, during the construction of Columbia, details of the final design changed, particularly with regard to the weight of the fuselage and wings. Refitting Enterprise for spaceflight would have involved dismantling the orbiter and returning the sections to subcontractors across the country. As this was an expensive proposition, it was determined to be less costly to build Challenger around a body frame (STA-099) that had been created as a test article. Similarly, Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead.


Construction began on the first orbiter on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was originally planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. A write-in campaign by Trekkies to President Gerald Ford asked that the orbiter be named after the Starship Enterprise, featured on the television show Star Trek. Although Ford did not mention the campaign, the president—who during World War II had served on the aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26) that served with USS Enterprise (CV-6)—said that he was "partial to the name" and overrode NASA officials.

The design of OV-101 was not the same as that planned for OV-102, the first flight model; the tail was constructed differently, and it did not have the interfaces to mount OMS pods. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on this vehicle, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was primarily fiberglass.

In mid-1976, the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models.

On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell’s plant at Palmdale, California. In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony.

Approach and landing tests (ALT)

Main article: Approach and Landing Tests

On January 31, 1977, it was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, to begin operational testing.

While at NASA Dryden, Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program. The initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977 atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight.

The mated Enterprise/SCA combination was then subjected to five test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination. These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems.

Enterprise underwent five free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control. These tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred.

On August 12, 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise flew on its own for the first time.

Preparation for STS-1

Following the ALT program, Enterprise was ferried among several NASA facilities to configure the craft for vibration testing. In June 1979, it was mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters (known as a boilerplate configuration) and tested in a launch configuration at Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A.


With the completion of critical testing, Enterprise was partially disassembled to allow certain components to be reused in other shuttles, then underwent an international tour visiting France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the U.S. states of California, Alabama, and Louisiana (during the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition). It was also used to fit-check the never-used shuttle launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, California. Finally, on November 18, 1985, Enterprise was ferried to Washington, D.C., where it became property of the Smithsonian Institution.


After the Challenger disaster, NASA considered using Enterprise as a replacement. However refitting the shuttle with all of the necessary equipment needed for it to be used in space was considered, but instead it was decided to use spares constructed at the same time as Discovery and Atlantis to build Endeavour.


In 2003, after the breakup of Columbia during re-entry, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted tests at Southwest Research Institute, which used an air gun to shoot foam blocks of similar size, mass and speed to that which struck Columbia at a test structure which mechanically replicated the orbiter wing leading edge. They removed a fiberglass panel from Enterprise’s wing to perform analysis of the material and attached it to the test structure, then shot a foam block at it. While the panel was not broken as a result of the test, the impact was enough to permanently deform a seal. As the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panel on Columbia was 2.5 times weaker, this suggested that the RCC leading edge would have been shattered. Additional tests on the fiberglass were canceled in order not to risk damaging the test apparatus, and a panel from Discovery was tested to determine the effects of the foam on a similarly-aged RCC leading edge. On July 7, 2003, a foam impact test created a hole 41 cm by 42.5 cm (16.1 inches by 16.7 inches) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly demonstrated that a foam impact of the type Columbia sustained could seriously breach the protective RCC panels on the wing leading edge.

The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was that the foam impact caused a breach of a reinforced carbon-carbon panel along the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, allowing hot gases generated during re-entry to enter the wing and cause structural collapse. This caused Columbia to spin out of control, breaking up with the loss of the entire crew.

Museum exhibit

Enterprise was stored at the Smithsonian’s hangar at Washington Dulles International Airport before it was restored and moved to the newly built Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport, where it has been the centerpiece of the space collection. On April 12, 2011, NASA announced that Space Shuttle Discovery, the most traveled orbiter in the fleet, will be added to the collection once the Shuttle fleet is retired. When that happens, Enterprise will be moved to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City, to a newly constructed hangar adjacent to the museum. In preparation for the anticipated relocation, engineers evaluated the vehicle in early 2010 and determined that it was safe to fly on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft once again.

Image from page 656 of “The Boston Cooking School magazine of culinary science and domestic economics” (1896)
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Identifier: bostoncookingsch19hill_4
Title: The Boston Cooking School magazine of culinary science and domestic economics
Year: 1896 (1890s)
Authors: Hill, Janet McKenzie, 1852-1933, ed Boston Cooking School (Boston, Mass.)
Subjects: Home economics Cooking
Publisher: Boston : Boston Cooking-School Magazine
Contributing Library: Boston Public Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Public Library

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Text Appearing Before Image:
account for this.—Food and Cookery. The reason I didnt come lastSunday was because my coat wasntfinished, said small Mary, when ques-tioned as to her non-appearance theweek before. My old one had spotson it that wouldnt come off, and aplace where the buttons had tornthrough. But, Mary, dear, saidthe teacher, gently, you know itsnot the outside that really matters.Yesm, I know, said little Mary;but, Miss Willing, mother had rippedthe lining out, so there wasnt anyinside to look at!—Exchange. Squire Hamilton, one of the best-known members of the Maine legalprofession many years ago, once satat a meagrely laden board. The din-ing-room had been newly and splen-didly furnished, whereas the dinnerwas very slender. While some of theguests were flattering the host onhis taste in decoration, Squire Hamil-ton said, For my part, I wouldrather see less gilding and more carv-ing.—Boston Herald. When you write advertisers, please mention The Boston Cooking-SchooiIMagazine. xxii Advertisements

Text Appearing After Image:
GEORGE W. GILE ~~ One of our loving friends. ■■ _ Are you having trouble in feeding your baby ? Does his food disagreewith him ? Does he lose in weight ? Does it seem as if he never would stop crying? Then Mellins Food will help your babyand we will prove it, if you will write us just what the trouble is and whatyou are doing. As soon as your letter reaches us, we will send you a sampleof Mellins Food and a book of helpful directions. We will also write you apersonal letter and tell you exactly how to use Mellins Food for your baby.We have helped thousands of babies and we can help yours—if you will let us. MELLINS FOOD COMPANY, BOSTON, MASS. When you write advertisers, please mention The Boston Cooking-School Magazine. xxiii The Boston Cooking-School Magazine Ice-alwaysinSpringvSummerFall orWinterAlwaysRelishedby Richor PoorJunketTabletsMake theBest atEvery Door We mail postpaid ten tablets to make tenquarts for 10 cents, and give you the charmingbrochure, Junket Dainties, free

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Four years later… (and i need a haircut desperately)
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Image by BellaGaia
In august 2009, I posted this photo… … it was a big deal for me. A breakthrough. It’s my most viewed selfie. I don’t really know how people get linked to it, but they do. So much has happened since then… I got married, my daughter is going to be a College Freshman in a couple weeks, I was laid off from my job after 25 years (a happy thing actually – Im free and off to pursue wonderful artistic things), my dear sweet Nana passed away in Nov and I guess the most obvious thing is I lost weight, roughly about 40 pounds I think… Not sure because I didn’t keep careful track of it. I actually didn’t consciously set out to do that. I just happened to lose 10-15 pounds when i had the flu each year for two years and didn’t gain it back and then well, last year was stressful and i lost about 15 or so pounds… i gained back 10 – took me 8 months. The Mr. would like me to gain some more, but I’m ok with it either way. that’s a Funny thing, for someone who was burdened by weight for a lot of years, I just don’t think about it too much anymore – well i just think about it in terms of remembering to eat. What a relief! It is kind of ironic that now I shop and can’t find pants small enough… Macy’s only goes to 2 and that’s too big. So, What I didn’t share 4 years ago, or ever really, is that at one time I weighed 300 pounds. Yes, I’ve changed a lot on the outside but Man oh man, the changes on the inside are the most profound and also the ones that made me part of the 5% that won’t gain their weight back. Can you believe that 95% of people that lose weight gain it back. Because food is a symptom, not the problem. So 4 years ago, I bared my body… This year I’m baring a little of my soul. Truth set me free and I do have a story worth telling and I’m beginning to find my voice. I’m sure this photo will garner comments such as the last one did, but I’m telling you, like I did 4 years ago – Please do not leave vulgar comments. I’m not here for that and I’ll delete them, so please be respectful. 52 years old and loving life – Yep, I’m in transformation again 🙂 Such great lessons I’m learning… not easy ones, but HUGE awarenesses breaking down barriers I’ve had for all these years – shedding more invisible bonds…. a work in progress always…. I’m still growing up, not OLD! …. and when everything in the world goes too fast and I feel like I can’t do another thing i just….. breathe….

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